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BPS's five core areas and depression

Present and integrated explanation drawing on the BPS’s five core areas: Cognitive, Biological, Social, Developmental and individual differences for the understanding of depression. Only utilize research conducted in the last three decades.

It is widely known that depression is an important area of public health concern as it causes people distress as well as social isolation from education, friendships and more. Apart from genetic factors, depression can be caused by various kinds of mood states as for example feeling sad, passive, apathetic, discouraged, lonely and misery. But the ‘‘core’’ element of depression is the negative mood state. Alonso et al., (2004) stated that 14% of European people claimed of having experienced some kind of mood disorder. When people were questioned how they feel most of them claimed sadness, loneliness and misery. However, this kind of depression differs from clinical or else major depression where people result in an intense depressed state becoming unable to actually function successfully later in their lives.

Nevertheless, depression is frequently diagnosed among college students. Megan A et al. (2011), conducted a study to ‘‘evaluate college students’ Facebook disclosures that met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) criteria for a depression symptom or a major depressive episode (MDE)’’. The results showed that from the two hundreds profiles that were estimated, 43.5% were females. On the whole 25% of profiles presented depressive signs with a 2.5% meeting the MDE criteria. What is more, adolescences that frequently went online on Facebook were more keen in displaying depression, Facebook.com is one of the most popular social networks for people and as study proved, youngsters tend to express and discuss online their depression tendencies and negative mood. All in all, this study evaluates through graphs that more men (113) than women (87) seem to use FACEBOOK.COM to externalize their feelings and thoughts, although the ‘‘disease’’ is common to both genders.

According to Anita Gurian, women are more prone to depression than men. This is due to a complex interaction among biological, genetic, cognitive and psychosocial factors. What is more, Anita evaluates the fact that women and girls are more vulnerable as well as prone to depression due to many factors, such as gender shift, genetic issues, psychosocial issues where parents’ style is restrictive rather than supportive and open to emotional expression, but also due to family factors, negative life events as for example sexual abuse, whether the abuser was a family member or a stranger and last biological issues experienced early in puberty, with physical development more advanced than their peers.

There are several researchers claiming that depression is more prone to women rather than men. A cross-sectional study conducted by Quelopana et al (2012) about women who were under medical and clinical attention in Africa and Chile during their pregnancy showed that women with violation experiences in their past, were more prone to suffer for postpartum depression as well as insecurity or emotional instability instead of women without any common life experiences in their past.

However apart from what was mentioned above, biological factors are involved in depression as well. Neurochemical as well as genetic factors are highly associated with depression (Donaldson, 1998). Gershon et al., (1989) claimed that identical twins have a 67% rate for undergoing clinical depression in contrast to the fraternal twins’ 15% rate. Furthermore, the role of brain chemistry is involved in depression as well. There is a theory stating that depression is a syndrome of motivation produced by ‘‘under activity in a family of neurotransmitters’’ that incorporates norepinephrine, serotonin as well as dopamine (Davidson, 1998). These neurotransmitters are highly significant in more than a few sections of the brain involved in facing pleasure and reward. However at the time neural transmission is being reduced in these sections of the brain the person results in experiencing loss of motivation as well as lack of pleasure which describes depression (Donaldson, 1998; White and Milner, 1992)

Cognitive factors are significantly involved in depression. Aaron Beck (1976) claimed that people that experience depression ‘‘victimize’’ themselves throughout their particular ideas and beliefs that they are inadequate, defective and worthless. What is more, depressed people are quite pessimistic and that is why they think that everything that is going on with their lives is bad and that negative issues will continue happening and that is due to their personal fault (Clarks et al., 1989). This ‘‘depressive cognitive triad’’ of these people having pessimistic thoughts concerning their selves the world in general and the future, appears to ‘‘pop’’ simultaneously into consciousness so a lot of people experiencing depression claim that they cannot manage or keep in check their negative thoughts (Wenzlaff et al., 1988). To end with, people experiencing depression are likely to recall better their failures rather than their successes as well as identify and remember better than non-depressed people pictures depicting sad faces leading to the idea of perceptual and memory sensitivity towards negative.

Goodman et al (2011) was interested in women's prone to depression as well as in how is children's perception, realization and beliefs about their mother's depression and also what are the implications of this. According to the research these children 1‘‘have greater risk for emotional and behavioural problems among children’’ with contrary treaties. The results came out of tests which have been applied to children on the age of 10 – 17 whose parents had been previously diagnosed to suffer from depression or depressive disorder.

Important things, related to depression, are also derived from the behavioural perspective. Peter Lewinson (1985) claimed that depression is mostly generated by a loss, by some damaging life experiences or by a drastic reduce in the amount of positive buttressing the person obtains from his or her surroundings. By the time the person starts suffering the illness, behaviours that previously offered reinforcement such as interests and socialization stop being performed. Furthermore, depressed people usually incline to make other feel inimical, nervous and depressed “(Joiner and Coyne 1999). Ultimately other people are tuning unwilling to understand why the person does not work the disorder off. Longitudinal analyses show that drops in social support are of paramount importance in ensuing depression (Burton 2004).

To conclude, depression is distinctive to each person individually and impacts many reactions and views of the patients. The nature of the disorder not only affects the patients, but also those who surround them as they probably change manners toward them. All the areas of Psychology must be integrated in order to understand the nature and the treatment of the depression of any individual and ultimately their treatment. The five core areas of BPS are all involved in defining and perceiving depression.

1 Goodman, Sherryl H., Tully, Erin Connell, Arin M., Hartman, Corey L., Huh, Myoyeon, Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, US, Measuring children's perceptions of their mother's depression: The Children’s Perceptions of Others’ Depression Scale–Mother Version., found at http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=3801747b-6282-4bdb-a16a-8656ce339b1e%40sessionmgr104HYPERLINK "http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=3801747b-6282-4bdb-a16a-8656[email protected]&vid=1&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ=="&HYPERLINK "http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=3801747b-6282-4bdb-a16a-8656[email protected]&vid=1&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ=="vid=1HYPERLINK "http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=3801747b-6282-4bdb-a16a-8656[email protected]&vid=1&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ=="&HYPERLINK "http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=3801747b-6282-4bdb-a16a-8656[email protected]&vid=1&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ=="hid=112HYPERLINK "http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=3801747b-6282-4bdb-a16a-8656[email protected]&vid=1&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ=="&HYPERLINK "http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=3801747b-6282-4bdb-a16a-8656[email protected]&vid=1&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ=="bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d

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